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Meaning and Principal of Development and Growth B.Ed notes

Meaning and Principal of Development and Growth B.Ed notes

What is Development?

The overall change in shape, structure and function of organ is called development. The development is both quantitative and qualitative (Growth is quantitative only).

Development is continuous process in human beings. 

According to developmental psychology, Development starts with conception and ends with death. The development includes cognitive development, emotional development, intellectual development, and social development.

According to Crow and Crow, development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situation."

What is Growth?

Growth can be defined as an increase in size, length, height and weight or changes in quantitative aspect of an organism/individual.

Principles of Development and Growth 

Development, although an individual phenomenon, has been found to follow logical and sequential pattern from conception onward. It seems that it is operated by some general rules or principles. These rules or principles may be named as the principles of development. Let us now discuss these principles briefly.

1. Principle of continuity. 

Development follows the principle of continuity which means that in one's life it is a never-ending process. It starts with conception. and ends with death. The changes, however small and gradual, continue to take place in all dimensions of one's personality throughout one's life.

2. Principle of lack of uniformity in the developmental rate. 

Development, though continuous, does not exhibit steadiness and uniformity in terms of the rate of development in various dimensions of personality or in the developmental periods and stages of life. In passing through the developmental stages, the changes are often so silent and gradual as to be almost invisible over a long duration but sometimes they are as fast as to be noticed quite easily. Thus, instead of steadiness, development usually takes place in fits and starts showing almost no change at one time and a sudden spurt at another, as for example, shooting up in height and sudden change in social interest, intellectual curiosity and emotional make-up.

3. Principle of individual difference. 

Every organism is a distinct creation in itself. Therefore, the development which it andergoes in terms of the rate and outcome in various dimensions is quite unique and specific.

4. Principle of uniformity of pattern.

 Although there seems to be a clear lack of uniformity in terms of the rate of development and also there are distinct individual differences with regard to the process and outcome of the various stages of development, yet it follows a definite pattern in one or the other dimension. which is uniform and universal with respect to the individuals of a species. For instance, the development of language follows a somewhat definite sequence quite common to all human beings. This is true of other cognitive abilities, and physical and psycho-social development follows a somewhat uniform sequence spread over different developmental stages and periods of one's life.

5. The principle of proceeding from general to specific responses. 

While developing in relation to any aspect of personality, the child first picks up or exhibits general responses and learns to show specific and goal-directed responses afterwards. For example, a baby starts by waving his arms in a general random movement and afterwards these general motor responses are converted into specific responses like grasping or reaching out. Similarly, when a newborn infant cries, his whole body is involved in doing so but as he develops, it is limited to the vocal cords, facial expressions and eyes etc. In the development of language, the child begins with generalized responses, such as by calling all men daddy and all women mummy but as he grows and develops, he begins to use these names only for his father and mother.

6. Principle of integration

By observing the principle of proceeding from the general to the specific or from the whole to the parts, it does not mean that only the specific responses are aimed for the ultimate consequences of one's development. Rather, it is a sort of integration that is ultimately desired. Throwing light on this principle Kuppuswami (1963) observes "Development thus involves. a movement from the whole to parts and from the parts to the whole" and in this. way it is the integration of the whole and its parts as well as the specific and general responses that enables a child to develop satisfactorily in relation to various aspects or dimensions of his personality,

7.Principle of interrelation. 

The various aspects or dimensions of one's growth and development are interrelated. What is achieved or not achieved in one or the other dimension in the course of the gradual and continuous process of development surely affects the development in other dimensions. A healthy body tends to develop a healthy mind and an emotionally stable and socially conscious personality. Inadequate physical or mental development may, on the other hand, result in a socially or emotionally maladjusted personality. This is why all efforts. in education are always directed towards achieving harmonious growth and development in all aspects and dimensions of one's personality.

8. Principle of interaction. 

The process of development involves active interaction between the forces within the individual and the forces belonging to his environment. What is inherited by the organism at the time of conception is first influenced by the stimulation received in the womb of the mother and after birth, by the forces of the physical and socio-psychological environment for its development. Therefore, at any stage of growth and development, the individual's behaviour or personality make-up is nothing but an end-product of the constant interaction between his hereditary endowment and environmental set-up.

9. Principle of cephalocaudal and proximodistal tendencies. 

Cephalocaudal and proximodistal tendencies are found to be followed in maintaining the orderly sequence and direction of development.

According to the cephalocaudal tendency, development proceeds in the direction of the longitudinal axis (head to foot). That is why, before it becomes able to stand, the child first gains control over his head and arms and then on his legs. In terms of the proximodistal tendency, development proceeds from the near to the distant and the parts of the body near the centre develop before the extremities. That is why, in the beginning the child is seen to exercise control over the large fundamental muscles of the arm and the hand and only afterwards over the smaller muscles of the fingers.

10. Principle of predictability. 

Development is predictable, which means that with the help of the uniformity of the pattern and sequence of development, we can, to a great extent, forecast the general nature and behaviour of a child in one or more aspects or dimensions at any particular stage of its growth and development. That is why we can discuss in developmental psychology the general nature of the development at different stages such as infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Not only is such prediction possible along general lines but it is also possible to predict the range within which the future development of an individual child is going to fall. For example, with the knowledge of the development of the bones of a child it is possible to predict his adult structure and size. Similarly, the appraisal of one's mental ability, emotionality and sociability can tell us a lot about the future trends of one's development.

11. Principle of spiral versus linear advancement. 

The path followed in development by the child is not straight and linear and development at any stage never takes place with a constant or steady pace. At a particular stage of his development, after the child had developed to a certain level, there is likely to be a period of rest for consolidation of the developmental progress achieved till then.. In advancing further, therefore, development turns back and then moves forward again in a spiral pattern as illustrated in Figure 9.1.

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